This article is geared toward RHEL 7 and Centos 7 but should work on most distributions. I will include screen shots later.
Boot Linux cd or dvd and boot into rescue mode. Boot the cd or dvd and choose Troubleshooting. (Image1)
Once you hit enter with Troubleshooting hightlighted, choose Rescue a CentOS System. (Image2)
When the screen asks if you want to mount the file system under /mnt/sysimage, SKIP this step by tabbing to skip. (Image 3)
At the command prompt, type lvscan if it’s a logical volume, which it usually is, this will give you some output like; /dev/centos/root or /dev/mapper/centos-root or home. (Image 4)
Now at the command prompt type xfs_repair /dev/mapper/centos-root or whatever the name of the volume is that’s giving problems. You can repair all volumes, it won’t hurt a thing. (Image 5)
The result will look like this: (Image 6)
After repairing what you need, eject the cd or dvd and reboot.
If you still have a problem after this, you can repeat the steps but type xfs_repair -L -d then the volume name. These are dangerous options and you could lose data, but it m,ay also solve your file system corruption problems.
If you still have problems, I hope you remembered to back up.